The post-New Order Indonesian politics has provided a political opportunity structure for the state towards democratization. It has a double-edged sword: on the one hand democratization could lead to the civic engagement, but on the other hand, it provides a hot bed for the flourishing of anti-civic organization. As for the latter, following the fall of authoritarian regime of new Order in 1998, Indonesians have also witnessed the birth of transnational Islamist and radical organizations threatening the state’s integrity and peaceful coexistence of the citizens. Amid the public appearance of these radical organization, an issue of ideological infiltration and sabotage of radical organization upon mainstreaming moderate Muslim organizations, such as Nahdlatul Ulama and Muhammadiyah do exist. This article tries to reveal the impacts of a such infiltration practices and the extent that radical narratives win the minds and hearts of important Muslim leaders. Taking a closer a look to Muslim leaders in Sampang district in the island of Madura, the centrum of traditionalist Muslim in Indonesian Islamo-landscape, the article finds out that intolerant and radical ideologies do resonate clearly among the leaders. This finding resort as an alarm and counter-narrative to the long-admired Islamic traditionalism as an important backbone for moderate Islam in Indonesia.
Afdillah, Muhammad, “Dari Masjid ke Panggung Politik: Studi Kasus Peran Pemuka Agama dan Politisi dalam Konflik Kekerasan Agama antara Komunitas Sunni dan Syiah di Sampang Jawa Timur,” Thesis, UGM, 2013.
Aziz, Ahmad, Islamic Modernism in India and Pakistan 1857-1964, London: Oxford University Press, 1967.
Azra, Azyumardi, Indonesia, Islam, and Democracy: Dynamics in a Global Context, Jakarta: Equinox Publishing, 2006.
Bashori, Luthfi. “Deklarasi Aliansi Ulama Madura (AUMA).” http://www.pejuangislam.com/main.php?prm=karya&var=detail&id=1090, accessed August, 27 2019.
Bligh, Alexander, “The Saudi Religious Elite (Ulama) as Participant in the Political System of the Kingdom,” Syafiq A. Mughni (ed.). An Antology of Contemporary Middle Eastern History, Montreal, Quebec, Canada: Indonesia-Canada Islamic Higher Education Project, t.t.
Cowie, AP. (ed.), Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary of Current English. Ed. IV. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1994.
Freedman, Amy L. “Civil Society, Moderate Islam, and Politics in Indonesia and Malaysia.” Journal of Civil Society 5, no. 2 (September 2009): 107–127.
Green, Arnold H., “Political Attitudes and Activities of the Ulama in the Liberal Age: Tunisia as an Exceptional Case,” Abubaker A. Bagader (ed.), The Ulama in the Modern Muslim Nation-State, Kuala Lumpur: Muslim Youth Movement of Malaysia, 1983.
Hamdi, Ahmad Zainul, “Kalim Religious Authority dalam Konflik Sunni-Syi'i Sampang Madura, Islamica, Vol 6. No. 2, 2012.
________, “Syariat Islam dan Pragmatisme Politik: Studi Kasus Penerapan Syariat Islam di Pamekasan Madura,” Agama dan Kontestasi Ruang Publik: Islamisme, Konflik, dan Demokrasi, Jakarta: The Wahid Institute, 2011.
Hefner, Robert W. Civil Islam. Muslims and Democratization in Indonesia. New Jersey: Princeton University Press, n.d.
Jamhari. “Mapping Radical Islam in Indonesia.” Studia Islamika 10, no. 3 (2003): 1–28.
Kirmanj, Sherko, “The Relationship between Traditional and Contemporary Islamist Political Thought,” Middle East Review of International Affairs, Vol. 12. No. 1, 2008.
Mas’ud, Abdurrahman, Intelektual Pesantren: Perhelatan Agama dan Tradisi, Yogyakarta: LKiS, 2004.
Mccauley, Clark & Sophia Moskalenko, “Measuring Political Mobilization: The Distinction between Activism and Radicalism,” Terrorism and Political Violence, Vol. 21, No. 2, 2009.
Miller, Judith. “The Challenge of Radical Islam.” Foreign Affairs 72, no. 2 (1993): 43.
Moghaddam, Fathali M., “The Staircase to Terrorism: A Psychological Exploration,” The American Psychological Association, Vol. 60, No. 2, 2005.
Mulyono, Mohammad Tikno, “Dakwah Front Pembela Islam (FPI) di Kabupaten Bangkalan: Studi Kualitatif tentang Gerakan Amar Ma’ruf Nahi Munkar,” thesis, IAIN Sunan Ampel, 2009.
Muzadi, KH. Abdul Muchith, NU dalam Perspektif Sejarah & Ajaran: Refleksi 65 Th. Ikut NU, Surabaya: Khalista, 2007.
Nakamura, Mitsuo, “The Radical Traditionalism of the Nahdlatul Ulama in Indonesia: A Personal Account of the 26th National Congress, June 1979, Semarang,” Southeast Asian Studies, Vol. 19. No. 2, 1981.
Pribadi, Yanwar. “An Abangan-like Group in a Santri Island: The Religious Identity of the Blater.” In Religious Diversity in Muslim-Majority States in Southeast Asia: Areas of Toleration and Conflict, 214–234. Singapore: ISEAS–Yusof Ishak Institute, 2014.
Saeed, Abdullah, “Trends in Contemporary Islam: A Preliminary Attempts at a Classification,” The Muslim World, Vol. 97, 2007.
Saifuddin, “Kekerasan atas Nama Tuhan: Studi Kasus Kekerasan FPI Yogyakarta, IN RIGHT: Jurnal Agama dan Hak Asasi Manusia, Vol 1. No. 1, 2011.
Siddiq, KH. Achmad, Khittah Nahdliyyah, Surabaya: Khalista & LTN-NU Jawa Timur, 2006.
Team, A Measure of the Extent of Socio-Religious Intolerance and Radicalism within Muslim Society in Indonesia, Jakarta: Wahid Foundation and Lembaga Survei Indonesia, 2017.
Team, Violent Extremism in Indonesia, Washington: The International Republican Institute, 2017.
Zaman, Muhammad Qasim, “Pluralism, Democracy, and The Ulama,” Robert W. Hefner (ed.), Remaking Muslim Politics: Pluralism, Contestation, Democratization, Princeton & Oxford: Princeton University Press, 2005.
________, The Ulama in Contemporary Islam: Custodians of Change, Princeton & Oxford: Princeton University Press, 2002.
Epistemé: Jurnal Pengembangan Ilmu Keislaman is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.