In its early periods, pesantren as a type of Islamic educational institution focused merely on religious teachings. Socio-political pressures and the need to carry out Islamic outreach have pushed kiai as pesantren leaders to negotiate their idealism according to the circumstances in different historical periods. Historical accounts from the Dutch colonial period to Indonesian independence show that kiai leadership becomes the decisive factor as well as the legitimation for pesantren to take certain actions during precarious situations. To examine the institutional development of pesantren in the post-reformation era, a recent ethnographic fieldwork has been carried out in three pesantren in Madura, Java, and Lombok. This paper discusses the development and transformation of pesantren as an institution from the Dutch Ethical Policy Period until today. It demonstrates pesantren’s involvement in anti-Western campaigns and trials of affiliation with oppositions in the colonial period. This paper shows how Islamic virtues remain the heart of pesantren education and examines how innovation in contemporary pesantren regarding pedagogies and values translated in seemingly non-religious areas is substantially based on religious values.
Abdullah, Taufik, Schools and Politics: The Kaum Muda Movement in West Sumatra (1927-1933), Cornell University Modern Indonesia Project Monograph Series. Ithaca, N.Y.,: Cornell Modern Indonesia Project, Cornell University, 1971.
Antlöv, Hans and Sven Cederroth, Leadership on Java : Gentle Hints, Authoritarian Rule. Studies in Asian Topics, Richmond, Surrey: Curzon Press, 1994.
Anwar, Dewi Fortuna, “The Habibie Presidency: Catapulting Towards Reform,” Edward Aspinall and Greg Fealy (eds.), Soeharto’s New Order and Its Legacy: Essays in Honour of Harold Crouch, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory: The Australian National University, 2010.
Aspinall, Edward, Opposing Suharto: Compromise, Resistance, and Regime Change in Indonesia. East-West Center Series on Contemporary Issues in Asia and the Pacific. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 2005.
Azra, Azyumardi. “Distinguishing Indonesian Islam Some Lessons to Learn,” Jajat Burhanudin and Kees van Dijk (eds.), Islam in Indonesia Contrasting Images and Interpretations, edited Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, 2013.
Benda, Harry J., “Indonesian Islam under the Japanese Occupation, 1942-45,” Pacific Affairs, Vol. 28, No. 4, 1955.
Boland, B. J., The Struggle of Islam in Modern Indonesia. Verhandelingen Van Het Koninklijk Instituut Voor Taal-, Land- En Volkenkunde, 59. The Hague,: Nijhoff, 1971.
Bourchier, David, Illiberal Democracy in Indonesia: The Ideology of the Family State, Taylor and Francis Inc., 2014.
Bruinessen, Martin van, “Pesantren and Kitāb Kuning: Continuity and Change in a Tradition of Religious Learning,” Wolfgang Marschall (ed.), Texts from the Islands. Oral and Written Traditions of Indonesia and the Malay World, Berne: University of Berne, 1994.
Burhanudin, Jajat, “Redefining the Roles of Islamic Organizations in the Reformasi Era,” Studia Islamika, Vol. 17, No. 2, 2010.
Castles, Lance, “Notes on the Islamic School at Gontor,” Indonesia, No. 1, 1966.
Dhofier, Zamakhsyari, “The Pesantren Tradition: A Study of the Role of the Kyai in the Maintenance of the Traditional Ideology of Islam in Java,” Phd Thesis, Australian National University, 1980.
Dhofier, Zamakhsyari, Tradisi Pesantren: Studi Tentang Pandangan Hidup Kyai, Jakarta: Lembaga Penelitian, Pendidikan, dan Penerangan Ekonomi dan Sosial, 1982.
Djajadiningrat, Loekman and Ch O. van der Plas, From Illiteracy to University, New York: Institute of Pacific relations. 8th conference Mont Tremblant Que. 1942., 1944.
Drakeley, Steven, The History of Indonesia. The Greenwood Histories of the Modern Nations, Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 2005.
Fauzia, Amelia, Faith and the State a History of Islamic Philanthropy in Indonesia. Vol. 1, Brill’s Southeast Asian Library, Leiden: Brill, 2013.
Fealy, Greg, “Nahdlatul Ulama and the Decline of Parliamentary Democracy,” David Bourchier and J. D. Legge (eds.), Democracy in Indonesia, 1950s and 1990s, Clayton, Vic.: Centre of Southeast Asian Studies, Monash University, 1994.
Ileto, Reynaldo, “Religion and Anti-Colonial Movements,” Nicholas Tarling (ed.), The Cambridge History of Southeast Asia, Vol 2, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993.
Ismail, Faisal, “The Nahdlatul Ulama: Its Early History and Contribution to the Establishment of Indonesian State,” Journal of Indonesian Islam, Vol. 5, No. 2, 2011.
Jackson, Elisabeth and Lyn Parker, “Enriched with Knowledge’: Modernisation, Islamisation and the Future of Islamic Education in Indonesia,” RIMA: Review of Indonesian and Malaysian Affairs, Vol. 42, No. 1, 2008.
Jones, Sydney, “New Order Repression and the Birth of Jemaah Islamiyah,” Edward Aspinall, Greg Fealy, and Harold A. Crouch (eds.), Soeharto’s New Order and Its Legacy Essays in Honour of Harold Crouch, Acton, A.C.T.: ANU E Press, 2010.
Lukens-Bull, Ronald A., “The Tradition of Pluralism, Accommodation, and Anti-Radicalism in the Pesantren Community,” Journal of Indonesian Islam, Vol. 2, No. 1, 2008.
Maarif, Ahmad Syafii and George A. Fowler, Islam, Humanity and the Indonesian Identity, Debates on Islam and Society, Leiden: Leiden University Press, 2018.
Majid, Nurcholish, Bilik-Bilik Pesantren : Sebuah Potret Perjalanan, Jakarta: Paramadina, 1997.
Moesa, Ali Maschan, Nasionalisme Kiai: Konstruksi Sosial Berbasis Agama, Surabaya; Yogyakarta: IAIN Sunan Ampel Press; LKiS: Distribusi, LKiS Pelangi Aksara, 2007.
Muhaimin, Abdul Ghoffur, “The Islamic Traditions of Cirebon: Ibadat and Adat among Javanese Muslims,” Australian National University, 1995.
OECD/ADB. Education in Indonesia: Rising to the Challenge, Paris: OECD Publishing, 2015.
Persis. “Sejarah Persatuan Islam.” 2015. Accessed 2017 http://persis.or.id/sejarah-persatuan-islam/.
Pigeaud, Theodore G. TH. and Hermanus Johannes de Graaf, Islamic States in Java 1500-1700 : Eight Dutch Books and Articles by H. J. De Graaf, Verhandelingen Van Het Koninklijk Instituut Voor Taal-, Landen Volkenkunde 70. The Hague: Nijhoff, 1976.
Pohl, Florian, “Islamic Education and Civil Society: Reflections on the Pesantren Tradition in Contemporary Indonesia,” Comparative Education Review, Vol. 50, No. 3, 2006.
Reid, Anthony, Southeast Asia in the Age of Commerce, 1450-1680, New Haven: Yale University Press, 1988.
Ricklefs, M. C., A History of Modern Indonesia since C. 1200. 3rd ed. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 2001.
Schwarz, Adam, “Indonesia after Suharto,” Foreign Affairs, Vol. 76, No. 4, 1997.
Smith, Bianca J. and Mark R. Woodward, Gender and Power in Indonesian Islam : Leaders, Feminists, Sufis and Pesantren Selves, Asian Studies Association of Australia Women in Asia Series, London; New York: Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group, 2014.
Srimulyani, Eka, Women from Traditional Islamic Educational Institutions in Indonesia : Negotiating Public Spaces. Iias Publications Series Monographs, Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, 2012.
Syakur, Abd., “Gerakan Tarekat Shiddiqiyyah Pusat Losari, Ploso, Jombang: Studi Tentang Strategi Bertahan, Struktur Mobilisasi, dan Proses Pembingkaian,” UIN Sunan Kalijaga, 2008.
Tan, Charlene, Islamic Education and Indoctrination: The Case in Indonesia. Routledge Research in Education, New York: Routledge, 2011.
Thomas, R. Murray, “Educational Remnants of Military Occupation: The Japanese in Indonesia,” Asian Survey, Vol. 6, No. 11, 1966.
Turmudi, Endang, “Religion and Politics: A Study on Political Attitudes of Devout Muslims and the Role of the “Kyai” in Contemporary Java.” Southeast Asian Journal of Social Science, Vol. 23, No. 2, 1995.
_________, “Struggling for the Umma: Changing Leadership Roles of Kiai in Jombang, East Java,” Australian National University, 1996.
Wirosuhardjo, Kartomo, Pts Sayang, Pts Perlu Ditimang: Perguruan Tinggi Swasta Dalam Sorotan, Jakarta: PT Elex Media Komputindo, 2015.
Zayd, Nasr Abu, Reformation of Islamic Thought: A Critical Historical Analysis. Amsterdam University Press, 2006.
Zulkifli, Sufism in Java: The Role of the Pesantren in the Maintenance of Sufism in Java, Leiden, Netherlands: Indonesian-Netherlands Cooperation in Islamic Studies, 2002.
Epistemé: Jurnal Pengembangan Ilmu Keislaman dilisensikan di bawah Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License .